Ethics in research, writing and publication

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Issue How to avoid
Plagiarism Using another person's text, figures, graphs, or data without attribution Be sure to cite work from other sources.
Self-plagiarism Re-using data from your own previously published paper Ensure that all data is new and original for each paper, including control experiments.
Falsification of data Manipulating data so that the published figure does not exactly match the original Ensure that no specific feature is enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.  Groupings of images must be disclosed.  Images must be uniformly adjusted and must not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original image.  Keep all original data.
Fabrication of data Making up data to improve the experimental results Make sure that the results are accurately represented.
Conflicts of interest Not disclosing any actual or perceived conflict that could affect scientific judgment Make certain that any affiliations, financial relationships, personal relationships, or funding sources that could be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity are disclosed.
Animal and preclinical research studies Not reporting the research using animals in a transparent manner Ensure that all research has been reviewed and approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.  Consult the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research.
Authorship issues Adding, deleting, or changing the order of the authors. Agree on authorship before writing the manuscript.  Authorship is based on substantial contributions.
Duplicate submission Submitting a manuscript or substantial parts of a manuscript to more than one journal Withdraw your paper or wait until it is declined before submitting to another journal