Ethics in research, writing and publication

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Issue How to avoid
Plagiarism Using another person's text, figures, graphs, or data without attribution Be sure to cite work from other sources.
Self-plagiarism Re-using data or text from your own previously published paper without attribution Ensure that all data and text are new and original for each paper, including control experiments.
Falsification of data Manipulating data so that the published figure does not accurately represent the original Ensure that no specific feature is enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.  Groupings of images must be disclosed.  Images must be uniformly adjusted and must not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original image.  Keep all original data.
Fabrication of data Making up data to improve the experimental results Make sure that the results are reported accurately.
Conflicts of interest Not disclosing any actual or perceived conflict that could affect scientific judgment Make certain that any affiliations, financial relationships, personal relationships, or funding sources that could be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity are disclosed.
Improper reporting of animal studies Not conducting/reporting research on animals appropriately or transparently All research involving animal subjects must be reviewed and approved by an appropriate committee, and these approvals included in the manuscript. Consult the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research.
Authorship issues Author list does not match contributions made Authorship is based on substantial contributions. Agree on authorship before writing the manuscript, and make sure all authors approve any changes in authorship.
Duplicate submission Submitting a manuscript or substantial parts of a manuscript to more than one journal Do not submit a manuscript to more than one journal concurrently. If you plan to use parts of a published article for a review article, be sure to check the licensing information from the publisher.